From September 22 to 25, 2015, at the invitation of President Barack Obama of the United States of America, President Xi Jinping of the People’s Republic of China paid a state visit to the United States. During the visit, President Xi Jinping and President Obama had in-depth, candid and constructive talks. The two sides reached extensive consensus and arrived at a series of important outcomes. According to the briefing given by officials from the Foreign Ministry, the main consensus and outcomes reached by the two sides are as follows:
I. The New Model of Major-country Relationship Between China and the United States
1. The two sides commended the important outcomes of the meeting at Sunnylands in 2013, the meeting in Beijing in 2014 and the meeting in Washington in 2015 between the two presidents, and agreed to continue the endeavor to build a new model of major-country relationship between China and the United States based on mutual respect and win-win cooperation. The two sides agreed to maintain close communication and exchanges at high and other levels, further expand practical cooperation at bilateral, regional and global levels, manage differences in a constructive way to achieve new concrete results in China-U.S. relations to the greater benefit of people of the two countries and the world.
2. The two sides agreed that, as permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and countries with important global influence, China and the United States should remain committed to maintaining a strong China-U.S. relationship to contribute to the peace, stability and prosperity of the world and the region. The United States welcomes a strong, prosperous and stable China that plays a greater role in international and regional affairs. The United States supports China’s stability and reform. China respects the traditional influence and practical interests of the United States in the Asia-Pacific and welcomes the United States to continue to play a positive and constructive role in regional affairs.
II. Bilateral Practical Cooperation
3. China and the United States recognize their shared interest in promoting a strong and open global economy, inclusive growth and sustainable development, and a stable international financial system, supported by the multilateral economic institutions founded at the end of World War II that have benefited the peoples of both nations. Both countries recognize and value the substantial contributions that the international financial institutions have made to global growth, higher incomes, the alleviation of poverty, and the maintenance of financial stability since their establishment. The rules-based international economic system has helped to propel China’s unprecedented economic growth over the past 35 years, lifting hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. The United States has also benefited from the emergence of a global middle class that, by 2030, is projected to include more than 3 billion consumers in Asia alone. U.S. exports of goods and services supported approximately 12 million jobs in the United States in 2014. China has a strong stake in the maintenance and further strengthening and modernization of global financial institutions, and the United States welcomes China’s growing contributions to financing development and infrastructure in Asia and beyond. The international financial architecture has evolved over time to meet the changing scale, scope, and diversity of challenges and to include new institutions as they incorporate its core principles of high standards and good governance. Both countries are committed to supporting this international architecture and welcome the greater role of the G20 in global economic governance to ensure an inclusive, resilient, and constantly improving international economic architecture to meet challenges now and in the future. In light of China’s increased share of global economic activity and increased capacity, the United States welcomes China playing a more active role in and taking on due responsibility for the international financial architecture, as well as expanded bilateral cooperation to address global economic challenges. To this end:
(1) China and the United States commit to strengthening and modernizing the multilateral development financing system. Both countries resolve to further strengthen the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, African Development Bank and Inter-American Development Bank by enhancing their financial capacity, reforming their governance, and improving their effectiveness and efficiency. Consistent with its development, in addition to being a shareholder and borrower, China intends to meaningfully increase its role as a donor in all these institutions. Both sides acknowledge that for new and future institutions to be significant contributors to the international financial architecture, these institutions, like the existing international financial institutions, are to be properly structured and operated in line with the principles of professionalism, transparency, efficiency, and effectiveness, and with the existing high environmental and governance standards, recognizing that these standards continuously evolve and improve.
(2) China and the United States reaffirm the importance of the MDBs in meeting the needs of the poorest countries through robust financial contributions to the International Development Association, Asian Development Fund, and African Development Fund. China is to meaningfully increase its contributions to the MDB concessional windows, consistent with its capacity. Both countries commit that the MDBs should continue to explore options to increase their lending capacity, including through using existing resources, and regularly reviewing their capital with an assessment of whether a capital increase is warranted. Both countries commit to continued efforts on MDB balance sheet optimization. China and the United States commit to collaborate on the World Bank shareholding review roadmap, including development of a shareholding formula and review of the World Bank’s capital needs in 2017. Both sides also recognize that the middle income countries still face challenges in alleviating poverty and that the MDBs have a role in addressing those specific needs.
(3) China and the United States commit to strengthen their cooperation in the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and continue to improve the IMF’s quota and governance structure. The United States commits to implement the 2010 IMF quota and governance reforms as soon as possible and reaffirms that the distribution of quotas should continue to shift toward dynamic emerging markets and developing countries to better reflect the relative weight of IMF members in the world economy. China and the United States affirm the efforts of the IMF Executive Board to pursue an interim solution, which aims to converge quota shares to the extent possible to the levels decided under the 14th Review. However, the interim solution should not constitute or be seen in any way as a substitute for the 2010 reforms. China and the United States are to support the Executive Board’s work on the 15th Review of Quotas, including a new quota formula, using the 14th Review as a basis.
(4) China and the United States commit to development finance cooperation in a third country through the multilateral development banks, respecting the ownership of the recipient countries.
(5) The United States welcomes China’s commitment to release economic data following the IMF’s Special Data Dissemination Standards (SDDS) by the end of the year and welcomes China’s continued efforts to enhance transparency. China recognizes the importance to successful RMB internationalization of meeting the transparency standards of other major reserve currencies. The United States supports China’s commitment to implement further financial and capital market reforms, and accordingly the United States reiterates its support for the inclusion of the RMB in the SDR basket provided the currency meets the IMF’s existing criteria in its SDR review. Both countries commit to respect the IMF’s procedures and process in the SDR review, and to enhance their communication on this issue.
(6) China and the United States look forward to continuing to discuss mechanisms to facilitate renminbi trading and clearing in the United States.
(7) China and the United States welcome the important progress that has been made in the negotiation of new international guidelines on officially supported export credits since the establishment of the International Working Group on Export Credits (IWG) through a joint high level commitment in 2012. China and the United States reaffirm their support for IWG guideline coverage of official export credit support provided by or on behalf of a government, including, but not limited to, official export credit support provided by official export credit policy financial institutions, and look forward to further discussing the scope of the guideline coverage at the next IWG meetings in October. China and the United States reaffirm that the guidelines should help ensure that governments complement commercial export financing, while promoting international trade.
4. China and the United States recognize the positive progress of the ongoing bilateral investment treaty (BIT) negotiation. The Leaders reaffirm as a top economic priority the negotiation of a high standard BIT that reflects a shared commitment to the objectives of non-discrimination, fairness, and transparency, that effectively facilitates and enables market access and market operation, and that represents on each side an open and liberalized investment regime. In light of the progress made in the BIT negotiations and both sides’ improved negative list proposals in September, China and the United States commit to intensify the negotiations and to work expeditiously to conclude the negotiation of a mutually beneficial treaty that meets these high standards.
5. The U.S. side reiterated its commitment to encourage and facilitate exports of commercial high technology items to China for civilian-end users and for civilian-end uses. Both sides commit to continue detailed and in-depth discussion of the export control issues of mutual interest within the China-U.S. High Technology and Strategic Trade Working Group.
6. China and the United States commit to limit the scope of their respective national security reviews of foreign investments (for the United States, the CFIUS process) solely to issues that constitute national security concerns, and not to generalize the scope of such reviews to include other broader public interest or economic issues. China and the United States commit that their respective national security reviews apply the same rules and standards under the law to each investment reviewed, regardless of country of origin. When an investment poses a national security risk, China and the United States are to use their respective processes to address the risk as expeditiously as possible, including through targeted mitigation rather than prohibition whenever reasonably possible. The national security review of each country is applicable only to investments completed after such review process is established. Once an investment has completed the national security review process of either country, the investment generally should not be subject to review again if the parties close the investment as reviewed under the respective national security review process. In their respective national security reviews, China and the United States commit not to use information, provided by entities not party to an investment, for the purpose, unrelated to national security, of promoting the commercial interests of a competitor of a party to that investment. China and the United States commit to continue exchanging views on issues regarding their respective national security reviews in the future, including the scope of each country’s national security review process and the role in each country’s national security review process for entities not party to an investment.
7. The United States welcomes investment from all countries, including China. The United States commits to maintain an open investment environment for Chinese investors, including state-owned enterprises, as with investors from other countries. The United States reaffirms its open investment policy and a commitment to treat all investors in a fair and equitable manner under the law. China and the United States commit to continue to communicate on bilateral investment issues, to promote development of bilateral investment.
8. The two sides welcome the promotion of China-U.S. sub-national economic and trade and investment cooperation. In that vein, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce and U.S. Department of Commerce and endeavor to complete a memorandum of understanding highlighting the priority that each agency places on facilitating sub-national economic, trade, and investment cooperation at this year’s China-U.S. Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade. As an example of such cooperation already taking place, the two sides are heartened by the role the Trade and Investment Cooperation Joint Working Groups established between Chinese provinces and cities and the U.S. states of California, Iowa, Texas, Michigan, and Washington and the city of Chicago and welcome the establishment of similar mechanisms.
9. China and the United States affirm the positive role that Select Reverse Trade Missions play in introducing U.S. advanced technologies to projects of mutual interest and promoting bilateral trade towards a more balanced direction. Both sides affirm that Select Reverse Trade Missions are conducive to promoting cooperation of both countries’ enterprises in priority areas including energy, environment, healthcare, aviation and agriculture, which serves the common interests of China and the United States. Based on the discussions at the 7th Strategic and Economic Dialogue, the Ministry of Commerce of China and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency commit to organize two targeted Select Reverse Trade Missions that bring two Chinese delegations to the United States to introduce them to U.S. goods and services, consistent with U.S. laws and policies, related to green infrastructure and green construction, including green engineering and design, green building and building efficiency, construction waste recycling, distributed energy, and smart city construction.
10. China and the United States highly value the important role the China-U.S. Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade (JCCT) plays in promoting bilateral economic relations and expanding mutually beneficial cooperation. Both countries are to ensure the success of the 26th JCCT by making progress on key trade matters of their business communities.
11. Technology is one of the pillars of the bilateral economic relationship between the China and the United States. Creating the conditions for expanded two-way trade and investment in the technology sector and avoiding measures that restrict it are critical to sustaining positive momentum in the economic relationship between our countries.
(1) Both countries affirm the value of adopting technology-product international standards that have been developed in an open, transparent, market-driven, and balanced manner that allow for due process. Furthermore, both countries recognize that industry’s participation in standards development without undue government influence is fundamental to rapid innovation and technology development.
(2) Both countries affirm the importance of competition policy approaches that ensure fair and non-discriminatory treatment of entities and that avoid the enforcement of competition law to pursue industrial policy goals.
(3) Both countries commit that generally applicable measures to enhance information and communication technology cybersecurity in commercial sectors (ICT cybersecurity regulations) should be consistent with WTO agreements, be narrowly tailored, take into account international norms, be nondiscriminatory, and not impose nationality-based conditions or restrictions, on the purchase, sale, or use of ICT products by commercial enterprises unnecessarily.
(4) Both countries affirm that generally applicable measures regulating technology products in the commercial sector benefit from meaningful consultation with the private sector, governments, and other stakeholders to encourage innovative, flexible, and cost-effective solutions.
(5) China and the United States affirm the importance of developing and protecting intellectual property, including trade secrets, and commit not to advance generally applicable policies or practices that require the transfer of intellectual property rights or technology as a condition of doing business in their respective markets.
(6) Both countries affirm that states should not conduct or knowingly support misappropriation of intellectual property, including trade secrets or other confidential business information with the intent of providing competitive advantages to their companies or commercial sectors. Both countries affirm that states and companies should not by illegal methods make use of technology and commercial advantages to gain commercial benefits.
12. China and the United States commit to conduct high-level and expert discussions commencing in early 2016 to provide a forum to support and exchange views on judicial reform and identify and evaluate the challenges and strategies in implementing the rule of law. U.S. participants are to include leading members of the U.S. judiciary, U.S. government legal policy experts, and officials from the Departments of Commerce and Justice and the Office of the United States Trade Representative. Chinese participants are to include officials from the Central Leading Group on Judicial Reform, leading members of the Chinese judiciary, and Chinese government legal policy experts. This dialogue is to result in an improvement in the transparency and predictability of the business environment. This dialogue does not replace, duplicate or weaken existing regular bilateral legal and human rights dialogues between China and the United States.
13. With strengthening policies to promote agricultural innovation and food security and to advance sustainable development as the themes of the Strategic Agricultural Innovation Dialogue (SAID), the two sides discussed food security, agricultural biotechnology, big data and information technology innovation, environmental management and sustainable development, agricultural and support programs, and plans for future bilateral dialogue and cooperation. Both countries commit to strengthen cooperation and create an enabling environment for agricultural innovation in the two countries and the world at large.
14. China’s Minister of Agriculture and the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture held a bilateral meeting on agricultural cooperation and renewed the Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China and the Department of Agriculture of the United States of America on Cooperation in Agriculture and Related Fields, to promote comprehensive, sustained, and balanced development of agricultural cooperation between both countries.
15. China and the United States conducted in-depth discussions on the administration of agricultural biotechnology, and committed to further improve approval processes. Both sides reaffirmed the importance of implementing timely, transparent, predictable, and science-based approval processes for products of agricultural biotechnology, which are based on international standards. Both sides committed to strengthen policy formulation and information exchange, share experience in and practices of research and development, regulatory administration, and safety approval of agricultural biotechnology; further revise and improve regulation, based on comprehensive consultations with domestic and international stakeholders; and, enhance capabilities in safety administration and safety approval of agricultural biotechnology products.
16. China and the United States reiterate their support for efforts to enhance the connection between their financial markets, consistent with their respective laws and requirements.
17. The Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) of China and the United States are to sign a memorandum of understanding (MOU) concerning cooperation in the exchange of information related to money laundering and terrorist financing. According to the MOU, the two FIUs commit to cooperate on the collection, analysis and exchange of financial information related to money laundering, terrorist financing, and related crimes on a reciprocal basis.
18. China and the United States acknowledge that green finance can be of great significance to environmental protection, pollution reduction, and sustainable development. Both sides welcome efforts that further green finance and cooperation in this field.
19. China and the United States reaffirm their commitment to implement the consensus reached by the leaders of their respective country and military, facilitate sustained and substantive dialogues and communication, and further advance the development of the China-U.S. military-to-military relationship. Building on the two Memoranda of Understanding on Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) signed by the two sides in China in November 2014, the two sides completed new annexes on air-to-air safety and crisis communications. The two sides agreed to continue discussions on additional annexes to the Notification of Major Military Activities CBM, and to deepen exchanges and cooperation in areas of mutual interest, including humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, counter-piracy, and international peacekeeping. At the invitation of the United States Pacific Command, the Chinese Navy will participate in the RIMPAC-2016 joint exercise.
20. The two sides will encourage the China Coast Guard and the U.S. Coast Guard to sign cooperation documents and facilitate cooperation between the two agencies in such areas as personnel exchanges, vessel visits, intelligence and information sharing and joint campaign against illegal and criminal activities at sea. The China Coast Guard and the United States Coast Guard have committed in principle that the two sides would negotiate to sign the rules of behavior of the two coast guards by consulting the Rules of Behavior Confidence Building Measure, annex on surface-to-surface encounters in the November 2014 Memorandum of Understanding between the People’ s Republic of China Ministry of National Defense and the United States Department of Defense.
21. Acknowledging the importance of the ongoing AP1000 projects in Sanmen and Haiyang, relevant companies of the two countries would work together for the early and safe operation of Unit 1 at Sanmen. The Chinese side welcomes the renewal of the China-U.S. Agreement for Cooperation Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy.
22. The two sides expressed satisfaction with the efforts under existing nuclear cooperation mechanisms, and decided to continue and intensify mutually-beneficial practical cooperation on technology research and development. The National Energy Administration of China and the U.S. Department of Energy planned to hold the 8th Joint Working Meeting under the China-U.S. Bilateral Civil Nuclear Energy Cooperative Action Plan this October in China. The National Energy Administration of China and the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy will hold the 11th Annual China-U.S. Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technologies Joint Coordinating Committee Meeting in 2016 in the United States.
23. The two sides attach great importance to exchanges and cooperation in the area of clean energy and fully recognize the collaboration and outcomes of the China-U.S. Clean Energy Research Center (CERC). To implement the consensus reached by the two presidents in Beijing on jointly developing clean energy and addressing the challenge of climate change, the two sides signed the Amendment to the Protocol for Cooperation on CERC to formally launch CERC Phase II. The two sides announce the expansion of cooperative research and development under CERC by launching a new technical track to improve the energy efficiency of medium-duty to heavy-duty trucks. This initiative is expected to accelerate the development of high energy efficiency trucks and their introduction into the markets of both countries, leading to significant reductions in oil consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector.
24. New progress is made in China-U.S. civil aviation cooperation. On September 22, relevant Chinese enterprises signed an agreement with Boeing to procure 300 aircrafts. An MOU on Enhancing Comprehensive Strategic Cooperation in Civil Aviation is signed between the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) of China and the Boeing Company, outlining cooperation goals and contents in areas including industrial cooperation and production, green aviation technology development, innovative development of leadership as well as development of world-class civil aviation transportation system. A document on 737MAX Completion Center is signed between Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China Ltd (COMAC) and Boeing. A document on 747-8 structures cooperation is signed between Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC) and Boeing.
25. China Railway International U.S.A. Co. Ltd, Desert Xpress Enterprises. LLC, and HSR Palmdale signed the Framework Agreement of Establishing XpressWest Project Joint Venture on September 13, 2015.
26. The two sides held China-U.S. Environmental Matchmaking Meeting in California, the U.S. The two sides initiated cooperation on Green Ports and Vessels, identified priorities and mechanism of cooperation, and set up a working group to implement cooperative activities.
27. The two sides gave positive evaluation to the exchange and cooperation in health fields between the two countries; notice that non-communicable diseases have already become the major public health problems for both countries, and there have been collaborations in tobacco control and salt reduction between the two countries in recent years; support exploring further cooperation between the China National Health and Family Planning Commission and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in non-communicable diseases in the following areas: to carry out personnel exchanges through high-level policy forums, academic exchanges, people to people exchange forums, site visits and trainings; to strengthen the basic and applicable research cooperation in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases, with the focus on scientific research in prevention, diagnosis and recovery areas; strengthening cooperation on public health by creating a bulletin similar to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, and expanding the Field Epidemiology Training Program; to continue to support the implementation of the China-U.S. Smoke-free Workplace project and programs in heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and aging, and encourage the active engagement of the companies; to pay attention to and emphasize the negative impact of non-communicable diseases on health, and advocate for healthy lifestyle, the China National Health and Family Planning Commission and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, together with other relevant partners, will explore organizing the first China-U.S. Health City Forum.
28. The two sides reaffirmed their rejection of terrorism of all forms and agreed to enhance counterterrorism cooperation at bilateral and multilateral levels and continue to implement relevant resolutions of the U.N. Security Council. The two sides will seek to enhance counterterrorism cooperation on a wide range of issues, including on how to address the transnational flow of foreign terrorist fighters, crack down on terrorist funding networks, and increase information exchange on terrorist threats. Government officials and experts from the two sides held a workshop of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in the United States on September 14 and released a document of intent for cooperation.
29. The two sides highly commend the positive progress achieved in the field of anti-corruption and law enforcement cooperation by the two countries in recent years. Both sides decide to enhance and promote anti-corruption cooperation under multilateral frameworks of the UNCAC, G20 and APEC, and to deny safe haven for corrupt criminals and their proceeds of crime, including further implementation of APEC’s Beijing Declaration on Fighting Corruption, and support for the work of the ACT-NET. Both sides commit to combating all kinds of transnational corruption crimes through enhanced cooperation between anti-corruption and law enforcement agencies of the two countries. China welcomes the U.S. commitment to partner with China in leading G20 efforts in fighting transnational corruption during China’s G20 presidency in 2016. The United States welcomes China’s commitment to consider joining the OECD working group on bribery as a Participant in the near future.
The two sides decide to further implement the relevant consensus reached by the leaders of the two countries utilizing China-U.S. Joint Liaison Group (JLG) as the primary mechanism for cooperation on law enforcement, and to take practical measures to handle mutually identified major corruption cases. Both sides agree to enhance practical cooperation in corruption prevention, detecting embezzled public funds, exchanging evidence, combating transnational bribery, fugitives and illegal immigrants repatriation, narcotics control, and counter-terrorism. In the field of asset recovery, both sides agree to discuss the mutual recognition and enforcement of forfeiture judgements. Both sides committed to hold the 13th plenary session of the JLG and the 10th JLG ACWG Meeting before the end of this year. The Chinese Ministry of Public Security and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security will hold a second minister-level meeting at a mutually suitable time in U.S. Both sides welcome recent progress on repatriating Chinese fugitives and illegal immigrants through charter flights and look forward to continuing this cooperation.
30. China and the United States commit to deepen their cooperation on nuclear security, and make joint contributions to promoting global nuclear security and nonproliferation. The two sides agree to jointly bring the 2016 Nuclear Security Summit to a success. The two sides plan to hold an annual bilateral dialogue focused on nuclear security, with the first meeting of the dialogue to be held prior to the 2016 Nuclear Security Summit. The two sides noted with satisfaction that progress has been made on the establishment of the Nuclear Security Center of Excellence and conversion of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor from highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium, as well as the signing of a Statement of Intent between the China Atomic Energy Authority of the People’s Republic of China and the Department of Energy of the United States of America Concerning Further Strengthening of Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Security.
31. The Chinese side announced that it would support 50,000 Chinese and American students in total to study in the other country in the next 3 years. The U.S. side announced it would expand the 100,000 Strong Initiative from U.S. universities to elementary and high schools to achieve the goal of having one million U.S. students studying Chinese by 2020. The two sides will support the collaboration between the think-tanks in Chinese and U.S. universities, hold the annual Forum among them, and promote increased cooperation and public diplomacy programming between Chinese and U.S. universities and educational organizations. The two sides will support the holding of the China-U.S. Young Maker Competition annually.
32. The two sides will designate 2016 as China-U.S. Tourism Year-a cooperative tourism initiative led by the U.S. Department of Commerce and the China National Tourism Administration to expand and shape travel between our countries. This year of collaboration will include events to promote travel between the two countries, support progress on market access, and advance initiatives for both China and the United States to ensure a quality visitor experience for increasing numbers of travelers to and from both countries.
33. The Ministry of Culture of China will continue to collaborate with public and private cultural institutions in the United States to implement Across the Pacific: China-U.S. Cultural Exchange Program, which includes exchanges in the fields of performing arts, visual arts, intellectual ideas and folk culture and cooperation in the cultural industry. National Development and Reform Commission of China and National Park Service of the United States signed the Statement of Cooperation on National Park System Management. The two sides will continue to follow and support the joint China Garden project and actively mobilize funds to ensure the start of construction as scheduled.
34. China Film Group Corporation and Motion Picture Association of America signed the Agreement on Cooperation in Importation and Distribution of Revenue-Sharing Film and expressed commitment to continue their cooperation in the film industry. China Media Capital and Warner Brothers Entertainment are forming a joint venture (“Flagship Entertainment Group Limited”) for film production and international distribution headquartered in Hong Kong. The State Council Information Office of China signed cooperation agreements respectively with the National Geographic Channel and The Walt Disney Company for jointly organizing China-themed photo exhibitions, making and broadcasting China-related documentaries, collaborating in program production, promoting China-themed museum exhibitions and making Circle-Vision 360-degrees movies for the China Pavilion in Disneyland.
35. The Chinese side highly commended the U.S.’s returning of 22 cultural relics to the Chinese side according to the Memorandum of Understanding Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on Categories of Archaeological Material From the Paleolithic Period Through the Tang Dynasty and Monumental Sculpture and Wall Art at Least 250 Years Old in the near future. The two sides support their close cooperation in combating cultural relics smuggling under existing mechanisms. The two sides welcome archaeological excavation and research cooperation between the two countries.
36. The two sides welcomed their progress in building new embassy and consular facilities more reflective of the strength and importance of our relationship. The two sides recognized more must be done now. China has offered a new consulate site in Shanghai, and prepared suitable sites in Chengdu and Shenyang, and the United States will reciprocate with a comparable offer of suitable sites in Chicago, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Both sides agreed to move forward on a reciprocal basis to build new diplomatic facilities and acquire new housing in all cities where there is an established diplomatic presence, consistent with each other’s requirements. The two sides will discuss the secure resupply of materials needed for the maintenance of diplomatic facilities.
37. The two sides signed the Statement of Intent to cooperate between the National Institute of Standards and Technology of the United States of America and the National Institute of Metrology (NIM) of the People’s Republic of China Concerning Standards for Green Gas Measurements and Precision Medicine. The National Metrology Institutes of both countries will strengthen the cooperative relationship and continue to explore areas for mutually beneficial collaboration in measurement science and standards to underpin the implementation of China-U.S. Joint Announcement on Climate Change made by the Presidents of China and the U.S. on 12 November 2014, to support our industries and the environment, and to improve healthcare and quality of life of our citizens. The two sides conducted productive cooperation in the area of inspection and quarantine to ensure the safety of bilateral trade in food and agricultural products and its expansion. AQSIQ and USDA signed the Protocol on Sanitary Requirement of the U.S. Industrial Tallow to be Imported Into China. The two sides are committed to conduct further technical discussions and cooperation to facilitate bilateral trade in food and agriculture products.
38. China and the United States made commitment to enhance Customs cooperation in the areas of: the Container Security Initiative (CSI), Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) initiatives and strategic goals, and intellectual property rights protection and anti-smuggling enforcement, among others. The General Administration of Customs of China (GACC) and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) welcome the signing of a customs cooperation document concerning global supply chain security and facilitation, through which GACC and DHS will continue to deepen cooperation and promote a robust level of supply chain security and facilitation. Following the June 2015 signing of a revised Declaration of Principles Between United States Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the General Administration of Customs of the People’s Republic of China Relating to Bilateral Customs Cooperation at Seaports to Enhance Security, both sides will conclude an implementation plan as soon as possible to expand CSI cooperation.
39. To enhance sub-national exchanges and cooperation between China and the U.S., the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries and the U.S. State Legislative Leaders Foundation reached consensus on establishing the China-U.S. Sub-national Legislatures Exchange Mechanism, and plan to co-host the First China-U.S. Sub-national Legislatures Cooperation Forum in 2016.
III. Asia-Pacific Affairs
40. The two sides had in-depth discussions on Asia-Pacific affairs. They recognized that China and the United States have broad common interests and face common challenges in the Asia-Pacific. The two sides agreed to deepen dialogue on Asia-Pacific affairs at various levels, endeavor to build a relationship of positive interaction and inclusive cooperation in the Asia-Pacific, and work with other countries in the region to promote peace, prosperity and stability in the Asia-Pacific.
41. China and the United States decided to maintain communication and cooperation with one another on Afghanistan to support peaceful reconstruction and economic development in Afghanistan, support an “Afghan-led, Afghan-owned” reconciliation process, and promote trilateral dialogue among China , the United States and Afghanistan.
Together with Afghanistan, China and the United States will co-chair a high-level event on Afghanistan’s reconstruction and development on the margins of the UN General Assembly on September 26. This event will convene Afghanistan’s neighbors and the international community to discuss the importance of continuing robust regional and international support for the Afghan government and regional economic cooperation. China and the United States jointly renew their call on the Taliban to enter into direct talks with the government of Afghanistan. China and the United States also noted their mutual interests in supporting peace, stability, and prosperity in neighboring countries of Afghanistan, and to working in partnership with these countries to promote peace and stability in Afghanistan and the region.
IV. International and Regional Issues
42. China and the United States stressed the importance of commemorating the 70th anniversary of the UN and reaffirming the commitment to the UN Charter. The two sides expressed support for the United Nations playing an important role in international affairs as the central multilateral organization, and explored effective ways to maintain international peace and security through the UN.
43. In recognition of the critical role UN and regional peacekeepers serve in maintaining international peace and security, China and the United States affirm to further increase their robust commitments to international peacekeeping efforts. The Chinese side appreciates the U.S. side’ s holding of the Leaders’ Summit on Peacekeeping, and welcomes the new contributions to be announced by the U.S. to support peace operations. The United States welcomes the new contributions to be announced by China to support UN peacekeeping efforts. China and United States recognize the need to deepen the partnership between the African Union and the United Nations in peace operations. Both sides look forward to an enhanced discussion with the African Union and other partners to further explore proposals to this end. Both sides agree to continue discussions to deepen cooperation on capacity building for troop- and police-contributing countries.
44. China and the United States signed a Memorandum of Understanding that establishes a framework for development cooperation to guide our future collaborative efforts. The MOU recognizes our shared objectives in ending extreme poverty and advancing global development through enhanced collaboration and communication under the principle of development raised, agreed, and led by recipient countries.
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: China and the United States are committed to advance sustainable and inclusive international development as laid out in the new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, through expanded cooperation to end poverty and hunger and the promotion of inclusive economic growth, and protection of the environment. The two sides intend to communicate and cooperate in implementing the Agenda and to help other countries achieve common development goals.
Food Security: China and the United States decided to enhance cooperation on global food security. The two sides intend to enhance communication and coordination with the government of Timor Leste and share lessons learned in agricultural development and food security while exploring prospects for further cooperation. Separately, the two sides intend to explore opportunities to cooperate on climate smart agriculture to produce more and better food for growing populations, while building the resilience of smallholder farmers. Such efforts may include technical cooperation , such as on climate friendly irrigation and mechanization for smallholder farmers in Africa to advance our shared interest in addressing the impact of climate change and enhancing food security.
Public Health and Global Health Security: China and the United States decided to enhance concrete cooperation in public health and global health security, accelerating full implementation of the World Health Organization International Health Regulations and assisting at-risk countries to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats. The two sides intend to jointly work with the African Union and African Union Member States in the establishment of the Africa Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and collaborate with partner governments of countries in West Africa to strengthen national public health capacities in the wake of Ebola including strengthening the capacity of the cadres of public health and front line health workers. The two sides intend to enhance communication and exchanges regarding aid for health in West Africa. The two sides plan to continue to support and contribute to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.
Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response: China and the United States decided to expand cooperation on humanitarian response to disasters. China and the U.S. plan to participate constructively in the May 2016 World Humanitarian Summit. The two sides plan to expand existing cooperation on disaster response through increased support to multilateral mechanisms, including the United Nations International Search and Rescue Advisory Group. The two sides intend to conduct capacity building cooperation for the post-earthquake reconstruction in Nepal through mechanisms that promote collaboration between the international community and the government of Nepal.
Multilateral Institutions: China and the United States intend to expand their collaboration with international institutions to tackle key global development challenges.
45. The United States supports China’s presidency of the G-20 in 2016 and looks forward to working closely with China to promote strong, sustainable and balanced global growth. The two sides support the G-20’s important role as the premier forum for strengthening international economic cooperation and coordination. The two sides are committed to working closely with other G-20 members
(1) to strengthen macroeconomic policy cooperation to address the shortfall in global aggregate demand and the slow and uneven global recovery by promoting pro-growth fiscal and monetary policies,
(2) to increase potential growth rates through structural reforms and innovation, support a strong G-20 trade and investment agenda, and promote international trade and investment as engines of global growth,
(3) to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development,
(4) to enhance dialogue and cooperation on the policy framework for infrastructure lending, including on environmental standards,
(5) to phasing out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies by a date certain,and
(6) to strengthen cooperation to assist at-risk states to prevent, detect and respond to infectious disease threats.
V. Global Challenges
46. The two sides speak highly of the China-U.S. Joint Presidential Statement on Climate Change issued during President Xi Jinping’s state visit to the United States. Both sides will work together and with other countries to make the Paris Climate Change Conference a success. The two sides also reaffirm their determination to implement domestic climate policies, strengthen bilateral coordination and cooperation and promote sustainable development and the transition to green, low-carbon and climate-resilient economies. The two countries welcome the outcome of the First Session of the China-U.S. Climate-Smart/Low-Carbon Cities Summit held in Los Angeles on September 15-16, 2015, and look forward to a successful Second Session to be held in Beijing in 2016.
47. The two sides, recognizing the importance and urgency of combating wildlife trafficking, commit to take positive measures to address this global challenge. China and the United States commit to enact nearly complete bans on ivory import and export, including significant and timely restrictions on the import of ivory as hunting trophies, and to take significant and timely steps to halt the domestic commercial trade of ivory. The two sides agreed to further cooperate in joint training, technical exchanges, information sharing and public education on combating wildlife trafficking, and enhance international law enforcement cooperation in this field. China and the United States agree to cooperate with other nations in a comprehensive effort to combat wildlife trafficking.
48. China and the United States agree that timely responses should be provided to requests for information and assistance concerning malicious cyber activities. Further, both sides agree to cooperate, in a manner consistent with their respective national laws and relevant international obligations, with requests to investigate cybercrimes, collect electronic evidence, and mitigate malicious cyber activity emanating from their territory. Both sides also agree to provide updates on the status and results of those investigation to the other side, as appropriate.China and the United States agree that neither country’s government will conduct or knowingly support cyber-enabled theft of intellectual property, including trade secrets or other confidential business information, with the intent of providing competitive advantages to companies or commercial sectors.
Both sides are committed to making common effort to further identify and promote appropriate norms of state behavior in cyberspace within the international community. China and the United States welcome the July 2015 report of the UN Group of Governmental Experts in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security, which addresses norms of behavior and other crucial issues for international security in cyberspace.
The two sides also agree to create a senior experts group for further discussions on this topic.China and the United States agree to establish a high-level joint dialogue mechanism on fighting cybercrime and related issues. China will designate an official at the ministerial level to be the lead and the Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of State Security, Ministry of Justice, and the State Internet and Information Office will participate in the dialogue. The U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security and the U.S. Attorney General will co-chair the dialogue, with participation from representatives from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the U.S. Intelligence Community and other agencies, for the United States.
This mechanism will be used to review the timeliness and quality of responses to requests for information and assistance with respect to malicious cyber activity of concern identified by either side. As part of this mechanism, both sides agree to establish a hotline for the escalation of issues that may arise in the course of responding to such requests. Finally, both sides agree that the first meeting of this dialogue will be held by the end of 2015, and will occur twice per year thereafter.
49. The two sides decided to continue to enhance communication and coordination in maritime and fishery affairs through such mechanisms as the Dialogue on Law of the Sea and Polar Issues and the Bilateral Dialogue on Fisheries. The two sides will continue to step up dialogue on ocean protection as well as polar science cooperation, and promote practical cooperation on ocean environment, including national ocean protection and ocean acidification monitoring and assessment. The two sides commit to expand joint research efforts, and will work together on the proposal to establish a Marine Protected Area (MPA) in Antarctica’s Ross Sea.
The two sides plan to support the ocean cooperation through additional bilateral efforts, including a partnership between the coastal cities of Xiamen and Weihai in China and San Francisco and New York in the United States to share best practices to reduce the flow of trash into the ocean.